The diamonds get to us from the earth’s mantle, where the high temperature and pressure turn the carbon into diamonds. It happens naturally as deep as 150 kilometers under the face of the earth. This process creates white diamonds or actually colorless diamonds. So what causes the creation of colorful diamonds? What is the cause of different flaws inside of diamonds? Why sometimes can we find a yellow diamond or even rarer cases of blue or red diamonds? The next article is about that.
In the violent and stormy environment of the earth’s mantle carbon turns into diamonds. The earth’s mantle has extreme conditions that can’t “create” the diamonds evenly. Sometimes there are other materials in the process, which are also in the belly of the earth, and sometimes there are effects of radiation and different formation conditions affect the appearance of the diamonds. When there are different effects on different particles, we receive diamonds in natural colors, diamonds that got their color from nature.
The appearance of the colors is uneven; they can be different colors, different shades, different grades of clarity, and differently flawed. That is the uniqueness of nature, and that is the source of the value of the diamond. Some of the colors are very rare and increase the value of the diamond by millions of dollars, as in the case of blue and red fancy diamonds. Others are considered flaws, which lower its value, like diamonds with a pale yellow or brown shade. In the natural state, diamonds are created from carbon in the earth’s mantle; the pressure and temperature make the carbon change forms and turn into diamonds. In their natural state, diamonds are white, but the existence of other minerals in the formation process or different conditions of formation affect the color of the diamonds. The presence of different elements and minerals during the formation process give the fancy diamonds their name. For example, there are yellow diamonds, and the source of the yellow color is the presence of Nitrogen in the formation process. When there is a high concentration of Nitrogen in the formation process, fancy brown diamonds are created (known as champagne diamonds or cognac diamonds); green diamonds are a result of radiation during the formation process; fancy blue diamonds get their color from the presence of the Boron element; red diamonds are so rare scientists themselves don’t have the exact answer to their creation process. Those minerals that combine themselves into the formation of the diamond effect its characteristics, such as electrical conductivity and its shining (fluorescent).
The different flaws that appear in diamonds are called inclusions, and they have geological significance. The inclusions teach the scientists about the formation of the diamond and about what goes on in the depths of the earth. The inclusions got caught in the diamond during its formation, and they are a testimony to the materials that are present in the earth’s mantle. Inside the inclusions, there are different kinds of Chromium (Diaofsid, Enstatite, and Spinel), Pyrrhotite and Eklogit. From the analysis of different inclusions scientists learned, that although they are found in kimberlite rocks, they aren’t made in them.
There are different kinds of inclusions in a diamond, like bugs, pique, and bubbles. A bug is an inner crack in the diamond that is shaped like a feather, which is the meaning of its name in the Dutch language. Sometimes this crack is built into the diamond from the moment of its natural formation, and sometimes it is created during the polishing. The existence of a bug puts a challenge in the faces of the polishers, which try to polish the diamond in a way that will keep the bug outside of the polished diamond. The appearance of a bug hurts the value of the diamond. The pique is a term from the clarity sorting of the diamonds, and it refers to the appearance of small inclusions, light or dark, in the diamond. Bubble inclusions are inclusions that were created from gas that was trapped inside the diamond during its creation.